Natural Rubber: Properties, Production, and Uses Explained

by Joost Nusselder | Updated on:  June 24, 2022
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Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds plus water.

Currently, rubber is harvested mainly in the form of the latex from certain trees. The latex is a sticky, milky colloid drawn off by making incisions into the bark and collecting the fluid in vessels in a process called “tapping”.

In this article, I’ll tell you everything you need to know about this versatile material.

What is rubber

Getting to Know Natural Rubber

Natural rubber is a type of polymer that is produced by certain plants. It is a unique material that is widely used in everyday products, from tires to gloves to electrical insulation. The rubber is made up of long chains of molecules called polymers, which are connected by smaller biological compounds.

How is Natural Rubber Processed?

Once the sap has been collected, it is mixed with water to create a mixture that is passed through a series of screens to remove any excess particles. The mixture is then dried and passed through a phase of strong electrical current to create the final product.

What are Some Alternative Types of Rubber?

There are several different types of rubber that are used in everyday products. Some of the most widely used include synthetic rubber, which is produced in a different way than natural rubber, and wood rubber, which is made by peeling the bark off of certain types of trees.

What Research is Being Done on Natural Rubber?

There is ongoing research being done on natural rubber to improve its properties and find new ways to use it. Some of the areas of research include finding ways to increase production levels, developing new types of rubber with special properties, and finding alternative ways to produce rubber.

What Makes Rubber So Unique?

Rubber is used in a variety of products, including:

  • Tires: Rubber is a key component in the production of tires, providing the necessary strength and flexibility to withstand the demands of the road.
  • Flooring and roofing: Rubber flooring and roofing materials are durable and resistant to water and other environmental conditions.
  • Medical products: Latex rubber is used in a variety of medical products, including gloves and tubing. However, due to the vulnerability to allergies and impurities, synthetic rubbers are used more often.
  • Bicycles: Rubber is used in the production of bicycle tires and tubes, providing the necessary grip and flexibility to withstand the demands of the road.
  • Insulation: Rubber is an effective material for insulation, providing resistance to extreme temperatures and environmental conditions.
  • Gaskets, hoses, and connectors: Rubber is used to create custom parts and accessories, including gaskets, hoses, and connectors.
  • Elastomers: Rubber is used to create a variety of elastomers, which are essentially rubber-like materials that can be used in a wide range of products.

The uses of rubber vary greatly based on the type of rubber being produced and the specific properties it demonstrates. However, one thing is certain: rubber is a key material that is essential in the creation of many products we use every day.

The Opulent History of Rubber

Rubber has a long and rich history that dates back to the indigenous cultures of Mesoamerica. The earliest archeological evidence of the use of natural latex from the Hevea tree comes from the Olmec culture, in which rubber was first used for making balls for the Mesoamerican ballgame.

The Arrival of Europeans and the Transformation of the Rubber Industry

When Europeans arrived in South America, they discovered that the indigenous populations were using rubber for a variety of purposes, including making shoes and clothing. However, it wasn’t until the 19th century that rubber production became an important product for the entire world.

The Primary Source of Rubber

The primary source of natural rubber is the Hevea tree, which is native to the rainforests of South America. Today, Thailand is the largest producer of natural rubber, followed by Indonesia, Vietnam, and India.

The Widely Used Product

Rubber is now one of the most widely used materials in the world, with tons of rubber products on the market. Some of the most commonly used rubber products include:

  • Tires for cars, trucks, and bicycles
  • Rubber gloves for medical and food handling purposes
  • Rubber bands for holding things together
  • Rubber seals for preventing leaks in pipes and other equipment

The Importance of Rubber in Our Lives

Rubber is an important product that has been used by men for thousands of years. It has played a significant role in the development of our modern world and continues to be an important material in many industries.

The Intricacies of Natural Rubber Production

  • Natural rubber is produced by extracting a liquid sap called latex from certain types of trees, predominantly the Hevea brasiliensis tree.
  • This tree grows exclusively in South America, particularly in Brazil, but is now cultivated in Asia as well.
  • The tree can grow up to 30 meters in height and requires a specific atmospheric condition with high humidity and a supply of carbon dioxide to support its growth.
  • The latex is obtained by making incisions in the bark of the tree, and the resulting sap is collected in containers attached to the tree.
  • The sap is highly valuable and needs to be rationed to ensure a uniform supply.

The Coagulation Process

  • The latex obtained from the rubber tree contains a constituent material called rubber, which is the active element in the production of natural rubber.
  • The coagulation process begins by adding acid to the latex, which thickens it and causes the rubber to separate from the liquid.
  • The resulting mixture is then dried to remove excess water, and the dried sap is cut into thin sheets.
  • The cutting process takes place in a hot environment, which generally results in better quality rubber with higher efficiency.
  • The dried rubber sheets are then ready for use in a variety of methods.

Harvesting from Wild Plants

  • While the overwhelming majority of latex for rubber production stems from cultivated Hevea brasiliensis trees, there are over 2,500 types of plants that produce latex, including wild plants.
  • The process of extracting latex from wild plants is generally done by hand and requires heavy efforts due to the wet and herbaceous foliage.
  • The resulting rubber from wild plants compares poorly to that obtained from cultivated trees.

The Importance of Standardization

  • To ensure a uniform supply of high-quality rubber, efforts have been made to standardize the production process.
  • This involves a series of steps, including the cultivation and growing of rubber trees in a specific area, the harvesting of the latex, and the coagulation and drying process.
  • The standardization efforts help to facilitate the intake of the necessary constituent material and ensure a consistent supply of natural rubber.

The Rubber Tree: More Than Just a Source of Rubber

  • The rubber tree, also known as Hevea brasiliensis, is a species of plant in the spurge family Euphorbiaceae.
  • It originated in South America, specifically in the Amazon region of Brazil, where it was traditionally used by indigenous peoples for various purposes.
  • The tree is a tropical plant that can grow up to 100 feet tall and has a single leaf that can be up to 16 inches long.
  • It produces a milky sap or latex that contains a complex compound of water, sugars, and highly elastic materials.

The Production of Rubber from the Rubber Tree

  • The latex sap of the rubber tree is the primary source of natural rubber.
  • The sap is collected by making small cuts in the bark of the tree and allowing the latex to flow out into a container.
  • The sap coagulates when exposed to air, forming a solid material that can be separated from the liquid.
  • The solid material is then washed and dried to produce raw rubber.
  • Rubber plantations, primarily located in Southeast Asia and western Africa, cultivate the rubber tree for commercial production.

The Other Uses of the Rubber Tree

  • The rubber tree is not only useful for its latex sap but also for its wood, which is used for furniture and construction.
  • The tree is also known for its medicinal properties, as some traditional medicines use the bark and leaves to treat various diseases.
  • The rubber tree is also a source of food, as the latex sap contains sugars that can be fermented to produce an alcoholic beverage.
  • Additionally, the rubber tree is related to other plants in the Euphorbiaceae family, such as the dandelion and the poinsettia (a popular Christmas plant), which also contain milky latex sap that coagulates when exposed to air.

Exploring the World of Rubber Varieties

When we think of rubber, we often think of the natural form that comes from the sap of rubber trees. However, there are several different varieties of natural rubber, each with their own unique properties and characteristics. Here are a few of the most common:

  • Amazonian Rubber: This variety comes from the Hevea brasiliensis tree, which is native to the Amazon rainforest. It is known for its high elasticity and is often used in the production of tires and other commercial products.
  • Congo Rubber: This variety comes from the Landolphia tree, which is found in the Congo region of Africa. It has a lower elasticity than other natural rubbers but is prized for its durability and resistance to temperature changes.
  • Dandelion Rubber: This variety is produced from the roots of the Russian dandelion plant. While it is not as widely used as other natural rubbers, it is gaining popularity due to its ability to be grown in colder climates and its potential for sustainable production.

Producing Raw Rubber

Regardless of the variety, all rubber begins as a liquid latex that is harvested from plants. Here are a few things to keep in mind when producing raw rubber:

  • The latex must be collected carefully to avoid impurities and damage to the tree.
  • Once collected, the latex is coagulated to form solid rubber.
  • The solid rubber is then washed and dried to remove any remaining impurities.

Whether you’re working with natural or synthetic rubber, understanding the different varieties and how they are produced is key to creating high-quality rubber products.

So Many Uses for Rubber: From Tires to Medical Devices

Rubber is a valuable material for the transportation industry. It offers high compression and friction resistance, making it suitable for use in tires, conveyor belts, pump and piping handling, and vehicle housings. The treads on vehicle tires are made of rubber to provide better traction on the road. Rubber is also used in the manufacturing of aircraft and car tires, offering reliable handling and flexibility.

Sporting Goods

Rubber is also utilized in the production of balls for various sports. The material’s abrasion resistance and softer texture make it suitable for use in basketballs, soccer balls, and other sports balls. Rubber rollers are also used in the printing industry to create appealing prints on paper.

Medical and Surgical Devices

Rubber is a valuable material in the medical industry. It is used to create medical and surgical devices such as surgical gloves, insulating blankets, and molded boots. The material’s flexibility and resistance to abrasion make it suitable for use in medical devices. Synthetic rubber is also used in the production of pacifiers and other medical products.

Industrial Uses

Rubber is also used in the manufacturing of electrical parts, offering high electrical resistance. It is also used in the production of conveyor belts, pump and piping handling, and vehicle housings. The material’s resistance to abrasion makes it suitable for use in industrial settings.

Other Uses

Rubber is a highly versatile material that offers a large number of uses. Some additional uses of rubber include:

  • Flashes and uncured crepe for the manufacture of vulcanized rubber products
  • Valuable material for research and development of new materials
  • Adding or removing materials to create new kinds of rubber with additional properties
  • The milky liquid obtained from latex vessels or cells is used to create natural rubber
  • Rubber is produced in millions of tons annually, making it a highly valuable material for a wide range of industries

Working with Rubber: A Guide to the Versatile Material

Working with natural rubber is a traditional method that has been used for centuries. The process involves tapping the rubber tree to collect the latex, which is then processed to produce the rubber material. Here are the basic steps involved in working with natural rubber:

  • Tapping: The process of tapping involves making small cuts in the bark of the rubber tree to allow the latex to flow out.
  • Collection: The latex is collected in cups and then sent to a processing plant.
  • Coagulation: The latex is treated with an acid to coagulate the particles and form a solid mass.
  • Washing: The solid mass is washed to remove impurities and excess water.
  • Rolling: The rubber is rolled into sheets and then dried.

The Scientific Method of Working with Rubber

Rubber is a polymer, which means it consists of long chains of molecules linked together. The scientific method of working with rubber involves a more complex process that produces a highly versatile material. Here are the main steps involved in the scientific method of working with rubber:

  • Mixing: The rubber material is mixed with other materials to improve its properties and make it easier to work with.
  • Heating: The mixture is heated to a high temperature to improve the chemical bonds between the molecules.
  • Forming: The rubber is then formed into the desired shape using a variety of methods, including molding and extrusion.
  • Curing: The rubber is then cured at a high temperature to improve its strength and durability.

The Uses of Rubber in Everyday Life

Rubber is an essential material that supports a vast range of uses in the world. Despite the fact that there are many alternative materials available, rubber is still widely used due to its unique properties. Here are some of the main uses of rubber:

  • Electrical: Rubber is an excellent insulator and is used to support electrical wires and cables.
  • Automotive: Rubber is used to produce many parts of a car, including tires, belts, and hoses.
  • Medical: Rubber is used to produce medical equipment, including gloves and tubing.
  • Industrial: Rubber is used in the production of many industrial materials, including conveyor belts and gaskets.


So, rubber is a material made from latex from a tree. It’s used for everything from tires to gloves and is a very important material in the world today. 

So, now you know all the intricacies of rubber. Don’t be afraid to ask questions if you’re not sure about something!

I'm Joost Nusselder, the founder of Tools Doctor, content marketer, and dad. I love trying out new equipment, and together with my team I've been creating in-depth blog articles since 2016 to help loyal readers with tools & crafting tips.