Soft Woods: Characteristics, Examples, and Uses

by Joost Nusselder | Updated on:  June 19, 2022
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Softwood is wood from gymnosperm trees such as conifers. Softwood is the source of about 80% of the world’s production of timber, with traditional centres of production being the Baltic region (including Scandinavia and Russia), North America and China.

Soft woods are ideal for construction due to their lightweight nature and ease of handling. Moreover, they are more affordable than hardwoods. These woods are adaptable and can be used for a variety of purposes, such as exterior cladding, interior paneling, flooring, and furniture.

To understand the distinctions between softwoods and hardwoods and their applications, let’s delve into the subject.

What are soft woods

Softwood: A Versatile and Popular Option for Building and Design

Softwood is a type of wood that comes from gymnosperm trees, such as conifers. It is the opposite of hardwood, which comes from angiosperm trees. Softwoods lack pores, while hardwoods lack resin canals. This means that softwoods have a different internal structure than hardwoods.

Main Differences Between Hardwoods and Softwoods

The main difference between hardwoods and softwoods is their internal structure. Softwoods lack pores, while hardwoods lack resin canals. Other differences include:

  • Softwoods tend to be lighter in weight than hardwoods.
  • Softwoods have a lower density than hardwoods.
  • Softwoods are commonly found and available in large stock, making them a popular choice for construction and building supplies.

Features and Characteristics of Softwood

Softwood offers a range of features and characteristics that make it a suitable option for building and design, including:

  • Softwood is easier to produce and work with than hardwood, which means it can be created and shaped faster.
  • Softwood is perfect for construction and building, as it is a standard option for sheet cover and timber supplies.
  • Softwood is a popular choice for residential and commercial building due to its versatility and broad range of species available.
  • Softwood is a great option for external and internal cladding, as it allows for a seamless and efficient finish.
  • Softwood is a perfect option for achieving traditional or contemporary design trends due to its eye-catching lines and profiled boards.

Examples of Softwood Trees and Popular Uses

Some popular examples of softwood trees include fir and hemlock. Softwood is commonly used for:

  • Wall and ceiling paneling, such as VJ paneling and colonial profiles.
  • Castelation and batten cladding, which complements contemporary design trends with shadowlines and channels.
  • Efficient and seamless external cladding, which relies on softwood’s continuous feature and allows for a clean and modern finish.
  • Building and construction supplies, such as timber and sheet cover products.
  • Fire-resistant options, such as treated softwood, which is a great option for building and construction.

While softwoods and hardwoods share some similarities, there are some key differences between the two types of wood:

  • Density: Softwoods are generally less dense than hardwoods, which can affect their performance in certain applications.
  • Weight: Softwoods are generally lighter in weight than hardwoods, making them easier to work with in certain applications.
  • Pores: Softwoods have larger pores than hardwoods, which can affect their performance in certain situations. For example, softwoods are generally less resistant to insect damage and damp conditions.
  • Mechanical Properties: Softwoods come from gymnosperm trees, which have an enormous range of variation in terms of their mechanical properties. Hardwoods, on the other hand, come from angiosperm trees, which generally have more consistent mechanical properties.

Overall, softwoods are a versatile and useful type of wood that are frequently used in construction, manufacturing, and generating sheet goods. While they may not be as dense or hard as hardwoods, they offer a range of benefits that make them a good choice for certain applications.

Softwood Trees and Their Versatile Uses

  • Pine: One of the most commonly used softwoods in the world, pine is a versatile wood that is suitable for a wide range of building and construction work. There are a number of different types of pine available, including white pine and red pine, each with their own unique characteristics and qualities.
  • Spruce: Another popular choice for construction work, spruce is a strong and tough wood that is able to perform well under a range of different conditions. It is commonly used to produce a variety of different products, including sheet goods and structural parts.
  • Cedar: Known for its tight grain and fine finishes, cedar is a popular choice for a range of different design and building work. It is often used for outdoor projects, such as decking and fencing, as it is naturally resistant to rot and decay.
  • Fir: A pretty versatile wood, fir is often used in construction work due to its strength and durability. It is commonly used to create framing and other structural elements, as well as for sheet goods and other building products.

Softwood Uses

  • Construction: Softwoods are an essential element in the production of a wide range of building and construction materials. They are used to create everything from framing and structural elements to sheet goods and other building products.
  • Furniture Making: Softwoods are also commonly used in the production of furniture, particularly for pieces that are designed to be lightweight and easy to move around. They are often cheaper than hardwoods, making them a popular choice for budget-conscious buyers.
  • Woodworking: Softwoods are a popular choice for a wide range of woodworking projects, including carving and turning. They are often easier to work with than hardwoods, depending on the specific type of wood and the project at hand.
  • Paper Production: Softwoods are commonly used in the production of paper, as they are able to produce a wide range of different types of paper products. They are often classified as “long fiber” or “short fiber” depending on the length of the fibers in the wood.
  • Other Uses: Softwoods are used in a number of other applications, including as a fuel source, for the production of essential oils, and for the creation of musical instruments.

Differences Between Softwood Varieties

  • Weight: Softwoods can vary in weight depending on the specific type of wood. Some softwoods, such as cedar, are lighter than others, while others, such as fir, can be pretty heavy.
  • Color: Softwoods can also differ in color, with some, such as pine, appearing more yellow or reddish, while others, such as spruce, are typically white or light in color.
  • Grain: Softwoods can have a range of different grain patterns, with some, such as cedar, having a tight, linear grain, while others, such as pine, have a more open and irregular grain pattern.
  • Biological Differences: Softwoods can differ in terms of their biological makeup, with some, such as western red cedar, being superior in terms of their natural resistance to decay and insect damage.

Supply and Demand

  • Softwoods are widely available and are typically cheaper than hardwoods, making them a popular choice for a wide range of different applications.
  • Softwoods are produced all over the world, with a number of different varieties available depending on the location and climate.
  • Softwoods are often easier to process and deliver than hardwoods, making them a popular choice for a number of different industries.

Softwood Applications: More Than Just Construction

Softwood timber is commonly used in construction for structural and carcassing purposes due to its strength and durability. Some of the most common applications include:

  • Roofing and flooring
  • Wall framing and sheathing
  • Beams and columns
  • Posts and poles

Softwood is also used in the production of plywood, which is a popular material for construction and furniture making.

Finishing Applications

Softwood is a popular choice for finishing applications due to its versatility and affordability. Some of the most common finishing applications include:

  • Doors and windows
  • Molding and trim
  • Cabinets and furniture
  • Decking and fencing

Softwood is also used in the production of paper and pulp, which is used in a variety of industries.

Regional Applications

Softwood is grown in many regions around the world, including Scandinavia, the Baltic region, and North America. Each region has its own unique characteristics and applications for softwood timber. Some of the most common regional applications include:

  • Scandinavia: Softwood is commonly used in construction and furniture making due to its strength and durability.
  • Baltic region: Softwood is commonly used in the production of paper and pulp, as well as construction and furniture making.
  • North America: Softwood is commonly used in construction for structural and finishing applications, as well as in the production of paper and pulp.

Why Softwoods Are the Best for Construction

Softwoods, such as cedar and pine, are readily available and easily manipulated, making them a popular choice for construction. They are frequently used for interior framing, generating goods like plywood, and for outdoor applications such as fences and pallets. Softwoods are also used for raising inner walls in houses.

Softwoods are Cost-Effective

Softwoods are less dense and lighter than hardwoods, leading to lower costs for transportation and installation. They are also quicker to develop, making them a more sustainable choice for construction.

Softwoods are Durable

While softwoods may not be as dense as hardwoods, they can still have a long life when treated properly. Softwoods can be impregnated with biocides to increase their resistance to decay and pests, making them suitable for external applications.

Softwoods for Furniture: A Great Idea or a Risky Investment?

When looking for softwoods for furniture making, it’s important to know the different types and their unique characteristics. Here are some things to keep in mind:

  • Softwood types: Some popular softwoods for furniture making include pine, cedar, and fir.
  • Grain and colour: Softwood grain tends to be more consistent than hardwood, but the colour can vary depending on the specific type of wood.
  • Knowing how to match: If you want a consistent look, it’s important to know how to match the wood grain and colour.
  • Local availability: Softwoods are readily available at local hardware stores, making them a convenient option for those looking to start a furniture-making project.

Pros and Cons of Using Softwoods for Furniture

Softwoods provide several advantages when it comes to furniture making, but there are also some drawbacks to consider:


  • Cheaper: Softwoods are generally cheaper than hardwoods, making them a more affordable option for those on a budget.
  • Easier to work with: Softwoods are softer and easier to cut and shape than hardwoods, making them a good choice for beginners or those without access to professional woodworking tools (here are the essentials).
  • Readily available: Softwoods are widely available at hardware stores, making them easy to find for those looking to start a furniture-making project.


  • Not as durable: Softwoods are not as hard as hardwoods, which means they may not be as strong or durable over the long term.
  • Growth rings: Softwoods have growth rings that repeat in a consistent pattern, which can make them look less unique than hardwoods.
  • Veneer layer: Softwoods often have a veneer layer that can be uneven and may not look as good as hardwoods when stained.

How to Ensure Softwood Furniture is Strong and Durable

If you do decide to use softwoods for furniture making, there are some things you can do to ensure that your furniture is strong and durable:

  • Cut the wood in the right direction: Softwoods tend to be stronger and more durable when cut along the grain.
  • Check for knots: Knots can weaken the wood, so it’s important to check for them before starting your project.
  • Examine the wood: Look for any peculiar odours or fluorescent patterns that may indicate the wood is not of good quality.
  • Follow best practices for construction: Carina Jaramillo, a furniture maker, suggests using glue and screws to ensure that the furniture is stronger and more durable.
  • Use salvaged or weathered softwoods: These types of softwoods tend to be stronger and more durable than freshly cut softwoods.

How to Identify Softwoods for Furniture Making

If you’re not sure how to identify softwoods for furniture making, here are some tips:

  • Softwood tends to have an open pore structure, which gives it a softer appearance.
  • Softwood adds a feeling of warmth to furniture, but it can also look uneven when stained.
  • Cedar is a popular softwood for boat building because it tends to be stronger and more durable than other softwoods.
  • Search for specific types of softwoods: For example, fir is a common softwood used for furniture making because it tends to be stronger and more durable than other softwoods.

Hardwood vs Softwood Density: What You Need to Know

To better understand the difference in density between hardwoods and softwoods, here are some examples of each:

  • Hardwoods: ebony, rosewood, walnut, ash
  • Softwoods: pine, spruce, poplar

How Density Contributes to the Uses of Hardwoods and Softwoods

The density of a wood contributes to its uses in a number of ways. Here are some examples:

  • Hardwoods are often used for furniture making and other applications that require a durable wood that can withstand wear and tear over a long period of time.
  • Softwoods are commonly used in building and construction due to their ability to be cut and shaped easily, making them a popular choice for framing and other structural parts of buildings.
  • Softwoods are also commonly used in the production of paper products, such as newspapers and magazines, due to their long, straight fibers.

Deciduous vs Evergreen Trees

The classification of hardwoods and softwoods is not based on the leaves or seeds of the tree, but rather on the density of the wood. However, there are some general differences between deciduous and evergreen trees that can help you identify the type of wood:

  • Deciduous trees, such as walnut and ash, typically have darker wood than evergreen trees.
  • Evergreen trees, such as pine and spruce, have lighter colored wood.
  • Deciduous trees lose their leaves in the fall, while evergreen trees keep their leaves year-round.


So there you have it- soft woods are versatile, popular, and great for building construction because they’re easy to work with and don’t require as much strength as hard woods. They’re perfect for exterior walls and ceilings, and great for interior finishing too. Plus, they’re perfect for both residential and commercial buildings. So don’t be afraid to use them!

I'm Joost Nusselder, the founder of Tools Doctor, content marketer, and dad. I love trying out new equipment, and together with my team I've been creating in-depth blog articles since 2016 to help loyal readers with tools & crafting tips.